Permitted restrictions on freedom of expression under Art. 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights
Art. 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects various kinds of expression, including artistic, non-verbal and non-visual forms. This right means the freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. But there are situations where the state can legitimately impose certain conditions and restrictions on exercise of this right.
From the drugstore to the courtroom – what are the main reasons behind disputes between cosmetic and perfume companies in Poland
On the Polish market of cosmetics and perfumes we will find both global producers and Polish brands. The latter are getting better and better. The cosmetics market in Poland doesn’t stop to grow. That growth has been particularly dynamic in recent years. Competition is also intensifying. It can lead to an increase in the number of court litigation cases related to intellectual property rights. Below we indicate what in our experience has been the most common subject of disputes among industry players.
In common-law jurisdictions, the trust is a popular form for achieving various aims: managing assets, inheritance, building corporate structures, and tax planning. But countries from the Continental legal tradition, like Poland, typically do not have any institution directly corresponding to a trust. Polish doesn’t even have a word for it. This has raised doubts over the years and sometimes even suspicion on the part of courts and lawyers when they need to determine the consequences exerted by a trust in actual or potential disputes in jurisdictions unfamiliar with this form. Are their suspicions well-founded?
Linie lotnicze często anulują bilet, jeśli podróżny nie stawił się na lot w pierwszą stronę lub na lot na pierwszym odcinku podróży. Czy taka praktyka jest zgodna z prawem?
During the course of construction projects, issues often arise involving additional work or substitute work. Contractors perceive even minor departures from the original plans as additional work and demand an increased fee, while investors not only expect all their instructions to be followed within the agreed price, but treat any opposition by the contractor as a breach of contract. This dynamic works similarly between the general contractor and subcontractors. But the realities of the real estate development process often require work to be done even when the parties take different views of the work and do not sign a separate contract covering it. Is an additional fee nonetheless owed for performing such work?
The recent introduction into the Polish legal system of the possibility of applying for disclosure of evidence in the other party’s possession in cases alleging antitrust violations has stirred a debate over the treatment of evidence in Polish civil procedure. Should parties be given a broader right to demand production of evidence by the other side?