As information technology and the knowledge-based economy develop, trade secrets are increasing in importance. At the same time, theft of trade secrets and losses for the economy due to this problem are increasing. In recent years legislators have taken measures to modernise and strengthen the protection of trade secrets.
Technological advance and resultant socio-economic “revolutions” have always triggered significant developments in international economic law.
Property development projects are on the rise, accompanied by rising costs of building materials. Can contractors with old contracts which do not reflect inflation validly demand a higher fixed fee?
A ‘competent court’ now also includes the court at the place where the adverse effects of a tortious act occur. This approach will help victims seeking to recover damages.
Jurisdiction in cases involving international construction contracts under the recast Brussels I Regulation
In disputes involving cross-border construction contracts, one of the questions to be resolved is jurisdiction. Before joining issue in litigation in Poland, the defendant may assert the defence of the lack of jurisdiction of the Polish courts. Jurisdiction in such cases will be determined by applying the recast Brussels I Regulation. The Wrocław Regional Court recently issued a ruling on application of this regulation in civil litigation involving construction works.
Permitted restrictions on freedom of expression under Art. 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights
Art. 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects various kinds of expression, including artistic, non-verbal and non-visual forms. This right means the freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. But there are situations where the state can legitimately impose certain conditions and restrictions on exercise of this right.