Genuine contractual disputes are always at least in some way about a gap in a contract. A dispute most often arises when parties have agreed to a meticulously drawn-up set of specific provisions and then in the course of performance a situation occurs which is not adequately addressed by those provisions. That is because the parties did not really have the situation in mind when drawing up the contract. As a result, the situation is either not addressed at all, or, more often, falls under provisions that were not really meant to deal with it.
On 1 March 2019, an important amendment to the Civil Code comes into force, providing for the possibility of validating actions by a “false” corporate body. Up to now, such a possibility has applied only to actions by a “false” attorney-in-fact.
Foreign managers appointed to serve on boards of Polish subsidiaries often do not know what they can do and what they must do. Consequently they are not aware of what liability goes with either of these. They should be.
Closing date of an M&A transaction and the right to participate in the general meeting of a non-public joint-stock company
The Commercial Companies Code regulates in detail the rules for shareholders’ participation in the general meeting of a joint-stock company. The resulting legal conditions should be taken into account when planning the timeframe for M&A transactions to adequately secure the rights of the buyer of shares, and in particular, the possibility for the buyer to participate in the general meeting of a non-public joint-stock company after the closing of the transaction.
According to the applicable regulations, in order to transfer the ownership of shares, it is necessary to have a tangible element in the form of transfer of possession of registered shares or delivery of bearer shares. The transfer of ownership of registered shares additionally requires the conclusion of an agreement between the seller and the buyer (either on the share document itself or in a separate document), while the transfer of bearer shares may take place even without the conclusion of a formal agreement, through the mere delivery of the shares. Considering the significant legal consequences of delivering a bearer instrument, it is necessary to consider how to understand the term “delivery of shares”.
Representations and warranties are a common feature in M&A transactions and derive from common law systems. The fundamental aim of representations and warranties is to properly divide risk between the seller and the buyer. In countries with an Anglo-Saxon legal system, statements made regarding the object of sale are in fact explicitly an element of ex delicto liability, as misrepresentation, and contractual liability as breach of warranty. The significance of statements of this kind in contracts governed by Polish law is not entirely clear and has been widely discussed in case law and legal literature. The conclusions reached are summarised below.