The process of creating virtual currencies depends on the model used for the currency. In some instances it is a centralised process, where it is easy to identify the entity responsible for creation of the currency. In other cases, it is a decentralised process, in which various—often anonymous—users of the decentralised system may be involved in creation of the currency.
One of the possible applications of the Bitcoin protocol is smart contracts—legal relationships created, monitored and enforced automatically using the Bitcoin protocol.
A dispute over the documentation to the medicine Esbriet shows how much controversy is stirred up by the disclosure of registration documents for medicines to third parties. How to balance the interests of innovative pharmaceutical companies, manufacturers of cheaper generics, and doctors who seek full knowledge of the safety and efficacy of the drugs they prescribe?
In addition to direct public funding for innovative activity, e.g. grants and subsidised loans, tax instruments are also a major element of support for innovation.
The dynamic growth in market share of functional foods calls for a critical review of myths that have arisen around R&D projects in the food sector.