The holder of a patent may not prohibit trade in products containing a patented DNA sequence if the sequence does not perform the function for which it was patented.
Internet domain names should be registered in a way that respects prior rights.
A trademark holder may prohibit sale of brand samples and testers if the holder reserves title to the items and expressly indicates that they are not for sale, the European Court of Justice held on 3 June 2010.
The court may refuse to find unfair competition even if the grounds are met, if the facts in the case show that the holder of a renowned trademark did not take action against infringements for an extended time.
Placing a trademark on items given free-of-charge to customers does not constitute “genuine use” of a trademark required to maintain the registration.