enforcement of claims
From August 2019, the fee for an application for interim relief to secure a monetary claim (e.g. for payment of a specific sum of money) made before a legal action is brought to court has increased significantly. Instead of PLN 100, the fee is equal to one-fourth of the fee that would be payable in a suit on the claim (maximum PLN 50,000). Under certain conditions, the fee for an application for interim relief will be set off against the fee on the document instituting the principal proceeding (statement of claim). However, the provisions allowing for this possibility may give rise to problems of interpretation, and thus the need to incur additional costs.
During a crisis, the risk of running a business increases, and not just for “natural” reasons. There is also a growing number of unlawful behaviours by businesses, from incurring obligations they cannot honour to evading their existing liabilities. Too many businesses treat hard times as a great opportunity to shift the risk of their operations to counterparties who aren’t as “clever.”
A creditor has a chance to obtain satisfaction through a fraudulent transfer claim even if the debtor disposed of its assets before the claim arose. The intention to injure future creditors is demonstrated by the foreseeability of insolvency, and thus the debtor’s expectation of becoming insolvent with respect to potential creditors.
The possibility of seeking damages from a person who has knowingly benefited from a wrong done to another may offer the victim the only practical chance of obtaining even partial recompense. Often the immediate wrongdoer is insolvent, while someone else gains from the unlawful act.
The state’s enforcement of epidemiological restrictions (commands and prohibitions), despite many doubts as to their constitutionality, currently constitutes lawful exercise of public authority. Nonetheless, even actions by the state with the blessing of the law may entail a risk of COVID-19 infection for doctors, nurses, police and others. Serious detriment to their health—or even death—as a result of infection may give rise to liability on the part of the State Treasury under the principle of equity.
Declaration of a state of epidemiological threat and then a state of epidemic, and other legal acts, entails not only introduction of commands and prohibitions in everyday and professional life but also various types of restrictions on business operations. Doctors may be directed to work in hospitals for infectious diseases. Businesses are saddled with new restrictions causing them to generate significant losses. Can damages be sought from the State Treasury due to these restrictions?