Stanisław Drozd: articles by this author

The rise of independent professionals

One of the effects of the fourth industrial revolution is the uberisation of the economy – a shift from the classical economy in which businesses internally control and organize assets and activities to perform their functions, to the platform model where digital tools make it possible to coordinate independent individuals and external resources towards the same activity.

The Commission pushes forward on intra-EU investment protection

Earlier this year, the European Commission scored an important success in its campaign against intra-EU Bilateral Investment Treaties. The CJEU’s judgment in the Achmea case1 confirmed the Commission’s standpoint that a system that allows an investor from one EU Member State to challenge in international arbitration measures taken against its investment by another, host EU Member State, is incompatible with EU law.

Investment disputes in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Technological advance and resultant socio-economic “revolutions” have always triggered significant developments in international economic law.

The right to demand production of evidence from an adversary in Polish civil litigation

The recent introduction into the Polish legal system of the possibility of applying for disclosure of evidence in the other party’s possession in cases alleging antitrust violations has stirred a debate over the treatment of evidence in Polish civil procedure. Should parties be given a broader right to demand production of evidence by the other side?

The permissibility of asking witnesses leading questions in Polish judicial and arbitration practice

Whether witnesses can be asked leading questions is a vital issue for fair trials, but is treated inconsistently in Polish litigation practice. Inspiration can be sought from the rules that have worked for years in common-law jurisdictions.