Natalia Kobyłka: articles by this author

Offence of fraudulent encumbrance of assets to frustrate satisfaction of creditors

Sham encumbrance of assets to convince third parties of non-existent legal consequences may constitute a crime. Incurring fictitious obligations is an example.

Selective payment of creditors can be a crime

Arbitrary, selective payment of only certain debts may result in criminal liability of the debtor, including in a case where it is only threatened with insolvency, if such action exposes other creditors to a loss.

An overview of commercial activity in Poland

The Polish system of law recognises the freedom of commerce. The main act governing this area of law is the Act on Freedom of Economic Activity. The act sets down the rules applicable to the activity of business entities.

Change of shareholders in a limited-liability company

What document constitutes grounds for entry in the commercial register of sale of at least 10% of the shares in a limited-liability company? A legal adviser analyses a resolution on this issue by the Supreme Court of Poland.

Things to bear in mind when retaining title to goods sold

A seller may secure payment of the purchase price by reserving title to goods in the sale agreement, even if the goods are delivered to the buyer. Reservation of title must be made in writing with a certified date.

Easier to merge or spin off companies

An amendment to the Commercial Companies Code went into effect on 27 October 2011, simplifying and shortening the procedures for corporate mergers and divisions, including cross-border mergers.