Dr Kinga Ziemnicka: articles by this author

The long and winding road to lawful distribution of dividends

The process leading up to payment of dividends by a company, although highly formalised, is familiar to the players and should not present great difficulties. But it nonetheless requires vigilance, because failure to comply with the statutory requirements can have serious consequences, particularly as it is easy to fall afoul of the changing regulations.

Transferring the registered office of a Polish company abroad does not require the company to be liquidated in Poland

The Court of Justice has ruled that under the EU principle of freedom of establishment, transfer of the registered office of a Polish company abroad within the European Economic Area cannot be conditioned on conducting liquidation of the company in Poland.

Advance dividend: When can the company demand a refund?

Payment of an advance against anticipated dividends is attractive for shareholders but carries a major risk, particularly for the company. At the end of the financial year it may turn out that there is no basis for paying a dividend. Then can the company require the shareholders to return the advance?

Contributions to share capital in foreign currency and foreign exchange differences

With economic globalisation, foreign investors often decide to pay capital contributions to Polish companies in foreign currencies. This raises the question of how to convert these amounts into Polish currency.

What to pay attention to when outsourcing accounting services

As a taxpayer, a business remains liable for tax obligations even when it hires an external professional service company to maintain its accounting books.

Preliminary agreement for real estate transaction without a shareholder resolution?

A company may enter into a preliminary agreement to buy or sell real estate without obtaining shareholder approval, but the lack of a shareholder resolution will prevent the parties from seeking a court order enforcing the promise to go through with the t