A year of merger bans?


When defining the relevant market for the merger of Empik and Merlin, the Polish competition authority did not give sufficient consideration to the time factor.

How many transmission system operators in Poland?


The Third European Energy Liberalisation Package permits the existence of multiple transmission system operators for electricity and gas. Under current Polish law, however, there has been only one operator for each system.

When individual packages or products must be marked with a price


Is a seller free to decide whether or not to mark each package or item with a price, or is this a legal requirement? When is it alright to use a barcode instead of a price?

Construction contracts based on FIDIC standards


Construction contracts, including those used in public procurement projects, are often based on FIDIC terms, which are international, universal and commonly applied.

Ombudsman comes to the defence of freelancers


In execution proceedings, debtors who receive pay for their work on the basis of a contract to perform a specific assignment or create a specific work are treated worse than debtors who are paid a salary on the basis of an employment contract.

PGE will not acquire Energa


Even though PGE argued that its acquisition of Energa would have positive effects, such as increased national energy security for Poland, the Polish competition authority found that any benefits would not outweigh the restrictions…