Could brokers also use mediation?


Mediation is becoming a more widely appreciated and applied alternative dispute resolution method. But there are categories of cases where it could be used more often. One of them is disputes between capital market participants, and in particular between brokerages and their clients.

The permissibility of asking witnesses leading questions in Polish judicial and arbitration practice


Whether witnesses can be asked leading questions is a vital issue for fair trials, but is treated inconsistently in Polish litigation practice. Inspiration can be sought from the rules that have worked for years in common-law jurisdictions.

The owner does not always have to pay the holder for improvements to property


An interesting ruling was issued in a case we were handling. After the independent possessor of real estate turned the property over to the owner, it demanded payment for the expenditures it had made on the property, including construction of a building on the site. But does construction always raise the value of the property?

Rulings by Chinese courts more and more common in cross-border disputes


As the People’s Republic of China becomes an increasingly stronger player on the international scene, it is no surprise that rulings by Chinese courts are being issued more frequently in disputes arising out commercial cooperation with Chinese counterparties. This phenomenon will only grow in importance for European lawyers.

Pledge of Polish receivables under foreign law


Can receivables governed by Polish law be effectively encumbered by a pledge governed by foreign law?

When does the appointment of a member of a supervisory board of a joint-stock company end?


The issue of determining when the appointment of a member of the supervisory board of a joint-stock company ends in connection with the expiration of the term of office has been the subject of doubts and disputes for some time. It was particularly problematic to determine when the appointment ends when the term of office does not coincide with the financial year. The Supreme Court of Poland recently addressed this issue.