In a judgment of 21 March 2019 (C-443/17) the CJEU reiterated the need for a precise and concise interpretation of the term “protected product” under Regulation (EC) 469/2009 concerning the supplementary protection certificate for medicinal products. The CJEU stressed that this term only applies to an active ingredient of a medicinal product, and not combination with other substances that do not have an independent therapeutic effect.
The debate about whether implementing and enforcing a compliance programme is a general legal obligation is nothing new. Compliance is a tool for managing an organisation’s operational processes, preventing wrongdoing, and mitigating liability. For this reason, it is an element of the duty to exercise due diligence, with penalties not only of a criminal nature.
A building covered by the Warsaw Decree – attempt to revise the post-war legal status of buildings in Warsaw
When assessing the post-war legal status of buildings erected on land subject to the Warsaw Decree, there is currently greater focus on the circumstances surrounding wartime destruction of buildings and the fact that decree-related proceedings are ongoing. This is intended to take away or restrict ownership title to “budynki piątkowe” – buildings fulfilling requirements under Art. 5 of the Warsaw (Bierut) Decree. Meanwhile, the structure of a “decree building” is a refined legal concept that needs to be viewed in the context of laws and case law in effect at the time.
The authorities have 12 months to issue certificates confirming the conversion of perpetual usufruct into ownership (2 January 2020 is the deadline for issuing them). Therefore, the parliament has established a transitional provision according to which the fee for 2019 is to be paid by 29 February 2020. However, is it worth taking advantage of this extension? And will the high discount for conversion continue to be applicable? What about the property tax—will it also change?
One of the basic items that will probably be secured during a law enforcement search is a mobile phone or other electronic device, if there is a “reasonable suspicion” that it may contain information proving that a criminal act has been committed. Mobile phones are an attractive source of information about the holder’s life which investigators can then use as evidence. But what about the confidentiality of correspondence?